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X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy

Due to the regular atomic structure of crystalline material (the crystal lattice) each mineral has its typical X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern which follows the Bragg equation:

nλ = 2d*sinθ

Consequently, X-ray diffraction can be used to decipher the composition of rocks and is in particular useful for very fine grained rocks rich in clay minerals. This is true, in particular, because clay minerals as phyllosilicates have very strong and easily identifiable XRD patterns. XRD is a semi quantitative method. It uses the height of the individual 2θ peaks in relation to each other to determine the rough amount of the individual minerals present in the sample.

The FTIR spectroscopy is a physical process which is based on the interactions of infrared radiation (electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths of approx. 0.7-500 µm) with matter. In the identification of unknown substances, infrared spectroscopy represents a quantitative method of frequent application. As certain functional groups such as the SiO44-, CO32- or OH group have specific absorption ranges of which the wave numbers are largely independent of the remainder of the molecule, an unknown specimen can often also be identified already on the basis of the absorption frequencies of such groups.

By the combination of XRD and FTIR it is possible to record the modal (true) composition of the geological materials with adequate accuracy and also to correlate them with the chemical composition.

A further method for deciphering qualitatively, but fast and cheap, the phyllosilicates within a specimen is DCM (Dielectric Constant Measurement).



Gesteinslabor holds now two Stanford certificates in geomechanics

Gesteinslabor has acquired high expertise in reservoir geomechanics, in particular of unconventional reservoirs. This has now also been certified by successful participation in the Stanford online course "Unconventional Reservoir Geomechanics" offered by Prof. Mark Zoback.

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GEO:N project SUBI holds status seminar at Gesteinslabor

The interdisciplinary academic-industry joint research project is concerned with the integrity and safety of underground gas storages. The participants met in May in Heiligenstadt to discuss the progress and future of the project.

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EAGE/DGMK H2 storage workshop: a resumee

EAGE and DGMK arranged for the very first time together a workshop about the underground storage of hydrogen and the lyceum was crowded.

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Gesteinslabor publishes its first webinar

Gesteinslabor is contributing to the educational program of AAPG and has just published a webinar about geothermal energy.

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